Examination Of Typed Marble

Read the following report carried out by Prof. Dr. Mustafa KUMRAL (İ.T.Ü.),  Prof. Dr. Fahri ESENLİ (İ.T.Ü.), Prof. Dr. Emin ÇİFTÇİ (İ.T.Ü.), Prof. Dr. Muhittin GÖRMÜŞ (A.Ü.) and Assist. Prof. Dr. Mno PQR (X.Ü.)

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Concerning the letter of Antalya, Marble Industry Trade Limited Company dated 12.08.2022

Within the scope of the letter written by Antalya Marble Industry Trade Limited Company to the Dean’s Office of the Istanbul Technical University Mining Faculty, it is asked the Arabic-looking writing encountered during marble exploration and production activities in the Stone Quarry operated by the company was formed in natural conditions or not. Its location coordinates are 36S 241587/4121835. A technical expertise report on the relevant content with the age of the sediment is requested. Considering the letter, we examined the hand sample comprising the Arabic-looking letters and eight thin sections prepared from the same Quarry hand samples. First, we have focused on the geology of the Quarry and its surroundings to get basic information on geological units and their geological times, and then macroscopic and microscopic observations of rock and thin section samples.

Reviewing previous literature, the geological maps of the Quarry and its surroundings in show various geological units from Triassic to Recent and different thrust sheets (nappe). It is seen that there are rock units pushed on top of each other in different geological times around the Quarry. These units, which are generally pushed from the west and overlaid on younger rocks, are known as Lycian nappes (Gutnic et al. 1979). These older rock units, which are thought to have settled at the end of the Miocene, also overlapped within themselves. Şenel (1997) reports these thrust sheets from the bottom to top as follows: Yeşilbarak Nappe (Varsakyayla Formation, siliciclastic rocks-Eocene), Marmaris
Ophiolitic Nappe (Yeleme Olistostrome and Kızılcadağ Melange and Olistostrome, Cretaceous), Gülbahar Nappe (Orhaniye Formation, chert, radiolarite – Jurassic-Cretaceous) and Domuzdağı Nappe (Dutdere Limestone, Triassic-Jurassic) (Figs. 1-2).

The Stone Quarry and its surroundings, located between Başpınar and Taşkesiği, were also examined on GoogleEarth satellite images (Figs. 3-4).

Figure 1.
The main geological units of the Western Taurus and the Quarry location (Görmüş et al. 2003), 1. Thrust lines, 2. Possible tectonic line between Menderes Metamorphics and Beydağları autochthon, 3. Antalya Nappes, 4. Lycian Nappes, 5. Beydağları Autochthonous, 6. Menderes Metamorphics.

Figure 2.
Geological map of Taşkesiği Quarry and its surroundings. TrJ. Triassic-Jurassic, JK. Jurassic-Cretaceous, K. Cretaceous, Te. Tertiary-Eocene, Q. Quaternary.

Figure 3.
Location of the Stone Quarry, southeast of Taşkesiği, Google Earth view (B image is given to show that it is in the Triassic-Jurassic Dutdere Limestone as a geological unit)

From both previous geological maps of Gutnic (1977), Gutnic et al. (1979), Şenel (1997) and Google Earth images, it is seen that the carbonate rocks are widely exposed around the Quarry. The formation is indicated as Triassic-Jurassic aged the Dutdere Limestone.

It outcrops within the Lycian nappes. Görmüş et al. (2003) describe the Cretaceous aged foraminifera including Loftusia anatolica, L. morgani, Orbitoides medius, O. megaloformis, O. apiculatus (Figure 4), Simplorbites papyraceus, Hellenocyclina beotica, Omphalocyclus macroporus, Siderolides calcitraporus from the Yeleme Olistrostrome in the north-northeast of the Başpınar village located in the south part of the Taşkesiği Quarry.

The age of the clastic succession on the carbonates is Middle-Upper Maastrichtian. According to the benthic and planktonic foraminifers contained in the upper levels of the succession, it is stated that it continuous to Paleocene. It was emphasized that tectonism was effective at the end of the Maastrichtian and an olistrostromal sequence developed.

All the previous literature data mentioned above show that there are rocks dating to the Triassic- Jurassic-Cretaceous, perhaps up to Paleocene around the Quarry.

Figure 4.

Microscopic images showing the internal structures of Orbitoides fossils showing to the Late Cretaceous time in the north of the Başpınar Vilage (Görmüş et al. 2003).

Firstly, we examined six rock thin sections from the P and K-coded samples of the Quarry, three thin sections each. Due to the lack of fossil evidence, two more thin sections were prepared and a total of eight thin sections were studied.

Macroscopic Observations
P and K-coded samples are generally grey and beige in colour. They show a rapid reaction when treated with 10% HCl acid. Their hardness is around 3-3.5 Mohs. They do not show any macroscopic separation.

Microscopic Observations
Microscopic examinations of the samples from the Stone Quarry southeast of Taşkesiği were evaluated separately in terms of petrographic and fossil contents. The following includes brief explanations of each thin section.

Sample P1: The general texture of the P1-coded sample is sparitic. Recrystallizations (neomorphic) are common in microcrystalline and microsparitic fabrics. Allochem components are very few. Foraminiferal and pellet allochems are about 1%. These allochems are usually in finer microcrystalline texture. Euhedral and subhedral calcite crystals are seen widespreadly. In addition to these, thin and long coarse calcite crystals with rod-like aragonitic appearance, developed parallel to each other, were also seen as secondary mineral components during neomorphism. The less visible opening microcracks with 20-30 micron widths are also filled with secondary calcite crystals. Thin section views of the sample coded P1 are presented in Figure 5.

Figure 5.
Thin section views of the P1-coded sample. A-B. different textural views with various crystal sizes, coarse medium sized calcite grains appear side by side with microsparitic fabric, A. under crossed nicol, B. normal nicol, C. coarse parallel aragonitic oriented calcite crystals, D. miliolid (m) fossil and pellet (p) views in microsparitic fabric with recrystallized open microcrack filled by coarse calcite crystals, E. another P-coded sample thin section view, under crossed nicol.

Sample P2
In this sample, microscopic views are more or less similar to the example coded P1. However, dolomite crystals are also seen within secondary microcracks. There are fully recrystallized. Fossils, open cracks as well as oriented coarse calcite crystals and stylolites (Figure 6) are observed.

Stylolites with brownish interiors indicate compression by compression melting, while filled open cracks indicate tension stresses.


Figure 6.
Thin section views of the P2 coded sample. A-C. microcrystalline (mk) textural views, p. pellet, c. recrystallized microcracks, D-E. dolomite crystals views within the recrystallized part, d. dolomite, f. ?fossil fragment with recrystallized interior, F. coarse calcite parallel oriented calcite crystals, G. views from crystallizations with different fabrics, s. stylolite.

Sample P3
It has similar appearances to P1 and P2 coded samples with a neomorphic texture. Crystallizations are observed in different fabric. Dolomite crystals are secondary, in lesser proportions than the P2 sample. Styloliths are also present (Fig. 7). Stylolites with brownish interior indicate compression by pressure melting.

Figure 7.
Thin section views of the P3 coded sample. A. large calcite crystals with parallel appearance, B. a view of microcrystalline fabric, f. ?fossil, C. stylolitic (s) structure, D. dolomite crystal (d), E-F. views of different fabrics in the same thin section after recrystallization, p. pellets.

Samples K1-K3:
They do not seem very different from the samples with P code. Recrystallizations (recrystallization, neomorphism) in microcrystalline and microsparitic fabrics are also seen in these samples. Allochem components are still very few. Foraminiferal and pellet allochems are seen in about 1%. These allochems are usually in finer microcrystalline fabric. Euhedral, subhedral calcite crystals are common. Thin, long, coarse calcite crystals with rod-like aragonitic appearance, developed parallel to each other, were secondary occurrences during neomorphism. Thin section views of K1-K3 coded samples are presented in Figure 8.

Figure 8.
Microscopic views of K1-K3 coded samples, A-C. K1 code sample views, D-E. K2 code sample views, F-H. K3 code sample views, m. algal micritic formations with margins (images show different textural images, crystallization, coarse calcite crystals, and microcrystalline textural features).

Sample Name: P and K named samples
Macroscopic Examination
Both samples have gray beige general colors, micro-cryptocrystalline grain size, especially P- named ones have the appearance of abundant micro-cracked rocks, and contain fossile shells (Fig. 9). They show rapid reaction when treated with 10% HCl acid. Their hardness are around 3-3.5 Mohs. They do not show any visible alteration.

Microscopic Examination
Both of the rocks are fossiliferous micritic-sparitic limestones, and in the secondary state, calcites which are different grain sizes, coarse-medium coarse size and grain orientation in different directions, are developed. Because of these different directional growths observed in P-named samples, these sections of P-named samples conform to the definition of recrystallized limestone that onyx-marble characteristics (Fig. 10). This feature is not seen in K-named examples. Therefore, K-named samples do not show onyx-marble properties (Fig. 11). Fossil shells are within the primary texture of the rock. Opaque minerals are less than 0.5% and do not contain any other mineral component except carbonate.

Figure 9.
Fossil shell and coarse-grained recrystallized calcite in P-named sample under polarizing-petrography microscope (double nicol).

Figure 10.
Polarizing-petrography microscopy of grain orientation and differential orientation in the P-named sample (double nicol).

Figure 11.
View of K-named sample in polarizing-petrography microscope (double nicol).

X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Report

Measurement Conditions / Ölçüm Koşulları


Sample Name: 1

Ref Code Mineral Name Chemical Formula
98-0004-0550 Calcite C1 Ca1 O3

Main Graphics

Peak List

Pattern List

Sample Name: 2

Ref Code Mineral Name Chemical Formula
98-002-1949 Calcite C1 Ca1 O3

Main Graphics

Peak List

Peak List

Cathodoluminescence Microscopy (CLM) Study of Marble Sample

Technique Description

CITL MK5 model CLM integrated with a Nikon Eclipse LV150 microscope was used at 15 kV and 300 mA. CLM images was recorded using Nikon FI-2, a low light digital camera. Image pairs were captured in CLM and Reflected Light Microscopy (RLM) modes for selected sites.

Results of CLM Study

Carbonates can be studied using CLM in order to reveal their internal structures of carbonates which are not visible under ordinary optical microcopes and to determine different generations due to subtle chemical differences. In case of calcites, manganese is the main CL-activator.
CLM study of the subject sample revealed that the sample is essentially recrystallized limestone with very low cathodoluminesence, which is typical for calcites with sedimentary origin. Veins crossing the matrix form various figures and patterns. These veins show no zonation, no fracture filling and no hydrothermal activity-related calcite formation. Figure pairs below are to show reflected light view and CLM view of the selected sites (Figures 12 through 14). Both RLM and CLM images indicate that veins are in-situ formations due probably to pressure related dissolution and reprecipitation processes. As CLimages indicate, these veins are sparitic neo-calcite formations that ocur as pockets and/or as veins, some are of stilolitic character that form unique patterns in places.

Figure 12a-b. Neo-calcite veins within calcitic matrix which are not revealed under RLM.

Figure 13a-b. Sparitic neo-calcite pocket within calcitic matric forming a unique pattern.

Figure 14a-b. Sparitic calcite veins within calcitic matrix forming a vein network.

Fossil records
Fossils are about 1 % observed in almost all of the P and K coded samples. The fossils views of K1-K3 samples are presented in Figures 15-17. Marine foraminiferal fossils, small bivalvia and ostracod fossil shells are observed. Foraminifera fauna are as follows: ?Clavulinid, ?Ophtalmidium sp., ?Cyclammina sp., textulariid, miliolid forms. Very few rotaliid shells were also seen. Index fossil forms have not been found to give the exact age of the rock unit. However the data recorded by Gutnic et al. (1979), Şenel (1997) and Görmüş et al. (2003) and the fossil ?Ophtalmidium sp., ?Cyclammina sp., described herein by us, reveals that the limestones of the Quarry and its surroundings may be of Triassic-Jurassic-Cretaceous age.

Figure 15.
Fossil views found in P1 and P2 coded samples from the Taşkesiği Quarry, A. ?miliolid, B. textulariid- clavulinid, C. small mollusc-bivalvia shell, D. algal micritized fossil fragment cut by an open micro crack, E. textulariid – ?Cyclammina sp, F. ?miliolid form.

Figure 16.
Fossil views found in P2 and P3 coded samples from the Taşkesiği Quarry, A. fossil fragment with recrystallized inside and micritized edge, B. ?miliolid form, C-D. unidentified fossil shells, C. polarize nicol, D. crossed nicol, E. bivalvia and algal fossils, F. ?Ophtalmidium sp., G. unidentified fossil fragments, H. miliolid forms.

Figure 17.
Fossil views found in K1 and K3 coded samples from the Taşkesiği Quarry, A. ?miliolid and oolite, B. bivalvia shell, C. unidentified fossil shells, D. ostracod, miliolid, E. small miliolids, F-G. micritized fossil fragments with micritic algal edges.

Arabic text and commentary
When the surface of the stone is examined well, it is understood that the rock seems to be a brecciated limestone (Figure 18). Small white tiny clasts that look angular in shape are more likely to be intraclasts or recrystallized small limestone clasts. The appearance of these limestones that have passed through many phases such as collisions is due to the effect of tectonism. It is possible that the fragments, millimetres in size appearing white in color are composed of recrystallized calcite crystals. The brown appearances at the edges of white parts indicate algal iron-rich micritization. It is clear that the secondary neomorphic formations observed in the limestone may reflect differently on the rock surface. This writing that appears on the stone is from the original texture of the rock. As noted in thin sections, recrystallizations can produce such appearances on the rock’s surface. With another explanation, this Arabic looking text view is a natural formation under natural conditions in a certain geological time. The age of the rock is probably Triassic-Jurassic-Cretaceous, according to identifiable fossil findings and data of previous researchers. Fossil shells are seen within the primary texture of the rock. These rocks belong to limestones deposited on shallow sea platforms of the Tethys Ocean.

Figure 18. The view of the Arabic letters on the stone

This writing style is known as Talik. In the dictionary, talik, meaning “to be hanged, to be suspended”, is a type of writing developed from the writings of tawki and rika. Starting from the early period, in the Islamic state organization, the nib of the divan was 2-3 mm. short with a tawki line, pen tip 1 mm. Long texts were written with rika, which is. The new style that emerged as a result of the changes in these writings in the eastern countries was called talik (Fig. 19).

Figure 19.The sample of the Talik writin.


The letters on the rock found in the Quarry are natural and belong to Triassic-Jurassic-?Cretaceous aged limestones. Although this age range is seen as a very wide range of geological time, it is important to reveal this age in terms of millions of years as it indicates the prehistory of humanity. For people who see thousands of years as too long, it is remarkable that they think of geological times as millions or billions, and that the age of the world is based on billions of years, challenging the mind, but in terms of revealing an eternal time. It is the scientific duty of people to reveal the beauty of their art by investigating the causes. For this reason, it turns out that infinity and control in the concepts of time and space in the universe are meaningful in all aspects.


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Gutnic, M., 1977. Geologie du Taurus Pisidi-en au nord d’Isparta, Turkuie. Princi-paux resultats, exraits des notes de. M. Gutnic entre 1964 et 1971 par O. Monod, Üniversite du Paris – sud Orsay, 130.
Gutnic, M., Monod, O., Poisson, A., Dumont, J.F., 1979. Geologie des Tauri-des occidentales (Turquie). Mem. Soc. Geol. France, 137, 1-112.
Şenel, M., 1997. 1/100.000 ölçekli Türkiye Jeoloji Haritaları No 10, Isparta N24 Paftası. MTA Jeoloji Etüdleri Dairesi, 20s.